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Agave utisak

Agave utisak


Naučno ime

Agave utisak Gospodo

Uobičajena imena

Maguey Masparillo (u Meksiku)

Naučna klasifikacija

Porodica: Asparagaceae
Podfamilija: Agavoideae
Rod: Agave

Porijeklo

Ova vrsta je porijeklom iz Meksika (Nayarit, Sinaloa).

Opis

Agave utisak atraktivan je sok koji obično stvara usamljenu rozetu žuto-zelenih listova označenih parovima bijelih otisaka. Listovi su dugački do 2 metra (60 cm) i široki do 9 cm (3,6 inča). Na suncu poprimaju crvenu nijansu oko ivica. Cvijeće je zelenkasto-žuto i pojavljuje se krajem zime do ranog proljeća na uspravnom, nerazgranatom, visokom do 3 metra visokom cvjetnom klasu.

Specifični epitet "utisak" potječe od latinske riječi "impressionus", što znači "otisnuto ili utisnuto", a odnosi se na listove otisnute pupoljcima.

Kako rasti i brinuti se o Agave utisku

Svjetlost: Ovim biljkama je potrebno puno sunca da bi se hladovina hladila. Ako rastete AgaveU zatvorenom, odaberite svijetli, sunčani prozor sa što više sunca. Agave biljke vole izlaziti napolje od proljeća do jeseni.

Tlo: Agaves tolerirat će većinu tla sve dok imaju dobru drenažu, ali preferiraju pjeskovito ili stjenovito tlo.

Izdržljivost: Agave utisak može izdržati temperature od 25 do 50 ° F (-3,9 do 10 ° C), USDA zone tvrdoće 9b do 11b.

Zalijevanje: Zrele biljke su vrlo tolerantne na sušu. Od proljeća do jeseni temeljito zalijevajte svoje Agave kada se mješavina tla osuši. Zimi zalijevajte rijetko jednom mjesečno. Biljke u kontejnerima zahtijevaju češće zalijevanje od onih u zemlji.

Gnojidba: Daj svoje Agaves malu količinu gnojiva u proljeće tokom prve dvije godine.

Repotting: Kada lonac postane pun korijena, postao je vezan za lonac. Ako te primijetiš Agave postajući vezani za lonac, presadite ga novim tlom u novi lonac koji je tek malo veći od starog.

Razmnožavanje: Budući da mogu proći godine da bi se proizvelo sjeme, Agaves se obično propagiraju pomacima.

Saznajte više na stranici Kako rasti i brinuti se o agavi.

Otrovnost Agave impressiona

Agave utisak nije toksičan za ljude, ali može biti blago otrovan za djecu i kućne ljubimce.

Veze

  • Povratak na rod Agave
  • Succulentopedia: Pregledajte sukulente prema znanstvenom imenu, zajedničkom imenu, rodu, porodici, USDA zoni tvrdoće, podrijetlu ili kaktusima prema rodu

Foto galerija


Pretplatite se odmah i budite u toku sa našim najnovijim vijestima i novostima.






Ova vrsta Agave porijeklom je iz istočnog Meksika na vulkanskim tlima. Agave Impressa Impressive je vrlo dekorativna sorta Agave zbog svojih jarko zelenih listova, čarobnih s bijelim. Ova se karakteristika nalazi i unutar bijelih linija lišća, više ili manje širokih i intenzivnih, što je rezultat sabijanja lišća između njih u središnjem pupoljku. To je sorta sa prosječnom vegetacijom koja u zrelosti dostiže promjer od 1m. Listovi su otvoreno rašireni, linearni do lancetasti, dugi oko 40-60 cm i široki 5-9 cm. Kralježnice na bočnim stranama lišća su malene i zakrivljene, a krajnja kičma je jaka. Cvatnja se javlja nakon nekoliko godina, visoka je 2,3 m. Cvijet je nerazgranat i nosi zelenkastožute cvjetove. Ova sorta odbacuje malo ili ništa.


Impresivna agava namijenjena je suvim vrtovima, kamenjarima ili čak u posudama zbog svog razvoja. Donijet će grafiku sa dizajniranim lišćem i sferičnom siluetom.


Agave s bijelim prugama: Galerija pustinjske zasljepljenosti

Ranojutarnji pogled na sredinu rozete, zreo Agave victoriae-reginae f. compacta. Zbirka autora.

Kako se interes za kaktuse i sukulente povećava u svijetu i postaju dostupnije poželjnije vrste i hibridi no ikad prije, nekoliko biljaka nastavlja se isticati unatoč tome što se više od jednog stoljeća kontinuirano uzgaja. Među njima, ukrasno obilježene i kovrčave niti agave iz pustinja Arizone i sjevernog Meksika i dalje plene uzgajivače svojim atraktivnim oblicima rozeta i neobičnim, ali upečatljivim uzorcima boja na lišću.

(ako kliknete ili zadržite pokazivač iznad slika ovdje, prikazat će se dodatne informacije i otvoriti ih u proširenom svjetlosnom okviru)

Pogled na sredinu rozete, zreo Agave victoriae-reginaeKazo Bana’. Zbirka autora.

Cvijeće na cvatu od Agave schidigera ‘Durango Delight’, pustinjski botanički vrt, Phoenix, Arizona.

Prva vrsta u hortikulturi iz ovog pomalo umjetnog aranžmana uvedena je u uzgoj 1834. godine. Ovo je bio središnji Meksik Agave filifera, koji je opisao njemački botaničar, Joseph Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck. Omanja granična vrsta Arizona-Sonoran, A. parviflora, otkriven je i objavljen 1850-ih, ali je postao popularan u uzgoju tek skoro jedan vijek kasnije. Nekoliko drugih vrsta ušlo je u uzgoj kasnije u 19. stoljeću, a posebno su usko povezane i visoko ukrasne sjeveroistočne Meksike A. victoriae-reginae (opisao Moore 1875) i A. nickelsiae (opisao Roland-Gosselin 1895.). Druge manje vrste su se počele uzgajati između početka 20. stoljeća (npr. A. toumeyana), 1970-ih (A. utisak) i 1990-ih (A. mikroceps). Tokom protekle decenije iz sjeverozapadnog Meksika opisano je nekoliko dodatnih svojti koje su zanimljive za hortikulturu A. pintilla (2011) iz jugoistočnog Duranga i A. parviflora ssp. densiflora (2014) sa jugoistočne Sonore. Kako se botanički terenski rad nastavlja u suhim šumama i pustinjama sjevernog i zapadnog Meksika, vjerojatno će iz ove skupine biti opisane i druge vrste ili podvrste.

Pogled na sredinu rozete, Agave toumeyana ssp. bella u pustinjskom botaničkom vrtu, Phoenix, Arizona.

Ovdje se razmatraju agave, uz nekoliko izuzetaka, isključivo biljke pustinje Chihuahuan i Sonoran koje se tamo kreću od nivoa mora (Agave felgeri) na preko 8.400 ’/ 2.600 m (A. schidigera). Ekstralimitalne vrste su A. colimana (Colima i Michoacán), A. schidigera (od istog područja južno do zapadnog Guerrera) kao i A. filifera, koja se javlja na središnjoj meksičkoj visoravni od Aguascalientesa do Méxica, na uzvišenjima od

8.100 ’/ 2.500 m do preko 10.000’ / 3.100 m. Svi su oni pripadnici podroda Littaea i uključuje nekoliko odjeljaka Parviflorae, Marginatae i Filiferae (Gentry 1982). Uglavnom kao rezultat njihove uobičajene alopatrijske raspodjele, prirodni hibridi u ovoj skupini su obično presječni. Zbog koncentracije u sušnom okruženju na višim geografskim širinama i uzvišenjima u Arizoni i Meksiku, u velikoj su mjeri izvanredno žilave i hladno izdržljive biljke za ukrasne pustinjske sukulente.

Vlakna Yucca elata u pejzažu, pustinjski botanički vrt, Phoenix, Arizona.

Šablonski otisci listova jedna su od najupečatljivijih karakteristika ovih agava, a mnoge popularne vrste pokazuju atraktivne uzorke na listovima koji su utisnuti dok pupaju u tački rasta. „Pogled u dalj“ i fotografije izbliza iz središta rozeta većine ovdje prikazanih agava često otkrivaju zamršene, lakirane bijele geometrijske dizajne koji snažno podsjećaju na određene vrste plemenske umjetnosti. Isto tako, obilno navojni ili vlaknasti rubovi lišća na nekim vrstama također privlače pažnju i javljaju se u mnogim srodnim rodovima pustinjske blizine, poput juka i hesperaloja, gdje dodaju lijep naglasak oblicima ovih biljaka.

Jedno od očiglednih pitanja koje se nameće kada se gledaju ove biljke je zašto konvergentni uzorci boja i morfologija rozeta u mnogim manjim, lako naoružanim, uglavnom litofitskim agavama iz sjevernih zapadnih zapadnih Sierra Madre i susjednih regija na sjeveru i istoku? Čini se razumnim pretpostaviti da jarko bijele oznake odražavaju sunčevu svjetlost i pomažu u smanjenju topline površine lišća, a da uvijene niti na rubovima listova funkcioniraju kao hvatače za povećanje površine koju biljka ima na raspolaganju za sakupljanje rose i magle te usmjeravanje ovu vlagu u središte rozete. Obje adaptacije bile bi od očite vrijednosti za biljke koje rastu u vrlo suhim okruženjima gdje je sunčevo svijetlo gotovo tokom cijele godine, a kiše su obično slabe i sezonske. Zapravo, mnogi "najdlakiji" mali agavi dolaze u najsušnije dijelove pustinje Sonoran i Chihuahuan.

Mladi Agava parviflora ssp. fleksiflora detalj rozete. Zbirka autora.

Osim toga, cik-cak uzorci i kovrčave niti lišća narušavaju siluete rozeta i vjerovatno imaju maskirnu vrijednost za biljke koje rastu među kamenjem i travama. Uz jedan izuzetak, nijedna vrsta tretirana u ovom članku nema obrambene rubne zube koji su inače sveprisutni u rodu Agave. U poređenju sa većinom njihovih kolega, većina je efikasno bespomoćna, osim krajnjih kičmi. Ovi tamnozeleni i bijeli prugasti dizajni podsjećaju na zasljepljujuće maskirne uzorke koji su se široko primjenjivali na savezničkim brodovima tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata. Iako su pojava daljinomjera i radara otklonili vrijednost ometajućih kamiona na pomorskim brodovima i ratnim brodovima, malo je sumnje da su ti obrasci vrlo zbunjujući za oko. Uzorci zasljepljivanja također su poznati kod mnogih kralježnjaka (npr. Zebre i okapije, mravlje snježne i crno-bijele sove, gušteri bičevi, maloljetni morski anđeli, itd.) Kako bi razbili svoje obrise i zbunili potencijalne grabežljivce i plijen.

Uprkos tome što je nekoliko vrsta visoko sapogeno kao dio njihovog hemijskog arsenala (npr. Agave toumeyana i A. schottii), za ostale ovdje spomenute poznato je da su ukusni čovjeku nakon pečenja, a ljudi na sjeverozapadu Meksika koristili su ih kao slatke „divlje poslastice“ i za proizvodnju male serije mezkala. Uključujući i iznenađujuće s obzirom na njihovu relativno malu veličinu A. polianthiflora, A. parviflora i A. pintilla. Budući da znamo da će papkasti sisari koji dijele svoj domet pregledavati rozete i cvasti agave i da je pleistocenska megafauna ovog regiona bila mnogo raznolikija nego što je sada, ovaj ometajući uzorak bijele pruge na tamnije obojenim listovima mogao je biti čak i veću vrijednost za populacije ovih biljaka tada nego sada. Postojeći domaći papkaši grabežljivci lišća i stabljika agave uključuju pustinjsko-meksičke ovce visokog roga (Ovis canadensis nelsonii-”mexicana”), Pustinjski i jelenski mazga Rocky Mountain (Odocoileus hemionus eremicus i O. h. hemionus) i pekarije s ovratnikom (Pecari tajacu). Pored njih, drugi izumrli autohtoni kopitari koji su nestali u kasnom pleistocenu također su vjerojatno bili na mnogim regionalnim agavama.

Mali maloljetnik Agava polianthiflora pokazuje nedostatak ukrasa tipičan za sadnice nekoliko vrsta iz ove grupe. Ova patuljasta agava je vrlo zrela i živahna kada sazrije (vidi dolje). Zbirka autora.

Činjenica da su ovaj model boja i navika gotovo u potpunosti ograničeni na relativno male Agave vrsta porijeklom iz nekih najsušnijih područja istočne pustinje Sonoran i Chihuahuan, odsutna je na Baja Kalifornijskom poluotoku i ima tendenciju da postane daleko manje zastupljena u južnom dijelu područja ovog kompleksa (države Colima, Guerrero i México) sugerira da je ovo adaptacija se razvila kao odgovor na vrlo specifične utjecaje i / ili potrebe sjevernih pustinjskih ekosistema.

Biljkama uzgajanim sjemenom iz većine vrsta u ovoj grupi obično nedostaju vidljive kontrastne pruge sve dok ne navrše nekoliko godina starosti, što sugerira da ovaj uzorak boje košta biljku. Agave victoriae-reginae je jedan značajan izuzetak od ovog pravila. Ostale će vrste pokazivati ​​svijetle rubove listova umjesto prugastog dok konačni oblik subadultne rozete ne postane očit. Suprotno tome, pomaci će od početka obično biti blizu duplikata matične biljke, možda zato što njihove pruge dodaju ukupnu „vizuelnu buku“ i usamljenih odraslih biljaka i vilinskih prstenova.

Dvije vrste iz ove skupine podliježu posebnoj zaštiti na državnom i saveznom nivou u SAD-u i Meksiku. Ove vrste, Agava parviflora i A. victoriae-reginae, takođe podliježu ograničenjima u njihovoj međunarodnoj trgovini putem njihovih odgovarajućih CITES Priloga I i II popisa. Iako popisi dobavljača pokazuju da se divlje sjeme i dalje sakuplja od domaćih populacija obje vrste u Meksiku, međunarodna komercijalna trgovina ovim biljkama zasniva se pretežno na umjetno razmnoženom materijalu. Nažalost, lokalna kolekcija A. victoriae-reginae i druge vrste navodno se nastavljaju na domaćem tržištu u Meksiku.

Veliki Agave victoriae-reginae ‘Bijeli nosorog’ u komercijalnom rasadniku u Kaliforniji, septembar 2017. U jeku nadmetanja za veće primjere ovih biljaka, bilo je uobičajeno vidjeti primjere promjera 14 ”/ 35 cm poput ovog, 600 USD ili više.

Masovna proizvodnja kulture sjemena i biljnog tkiva (PTC) učinila je mlade primjere uobičajenih oblika gotovo svih ovih bijeloprugastih vrsta agave dostupnim proračunu gotovo bilo kog sakupljačkog kolekcionara. Manji i srednji primjeri većine ovih vrsta lako su dostupni i prodaju se u internetskim i rasadnicima cigli i maltera po cijeni od 10,00 do 25,00 USD. Biljke veličine uzorka i željeni klonovi šarenih oblika mogu biti znatno skuplje, s većim Agave nickelsiae, A. victoriae-reginae i A. utisak naredbe 100,00-300,00 USD, ovisno o izvoru. Veliki, dobro uzgajani šaroliki oblici ovih vrsta mogu navesti mnogo veće cijene na eBayu i u vrhunskim maloprodajnim rasadnicima koji ih nose. Za vrijeme vrhunca potražnje ludost za A. victoriae-reginae ‘Bijeli nosorog’, krajem 2017. i početkom 2018. godine, vidio sam kako se nekoliko većih, dobro uzgajanih biljaka ove sorte prodaje za između 500,00 i 1.000,00 USD. Cijene su u međuvremenu znatno pale, uprkos stalnoj potražnji.

Na biljke! Taxa i sorte označene zvjezdicom autor trenutno uzgaja u Kaliforniji:

Agave victoriae-reginae*. Kraljica Victoria Agave, lechuguilla. Dvije podvrste, victoriae-reginae* i ssp. swobodae. Bez sumnje, jedna od najslikovitijih ukrasnih sočnih biljaka i neophodna za bilo koji sakupljač agave. Gojim različite primjere ove vrste kontinuirano gotovo 40 godina i kao lončanice i u pejzažu, i nikad se ne umaram razmišljati o savršenom obliku i hapsiti dizajne lišća dobro uzgojene zrele biljke. Ova vrsta, zajedno s dvije dolje opisane vrste braće i sestara, ima najuočljivije isklesano lišće u rodu. Ova je osobina, za razliku od prugastog, dominantna kod njihovih hibrida gdje slabe oznake i fasetiranje na donjim površinama lista obično odaju njen utjecaj. Objavljen je zbunjujući broj starijih sortnih imena, što odražava značajnu intraspecifičnu varijabilnost ove biljke, kao i mogući uticaj prošle hibridizacije na genski fond. Većinu je teško međusobno razlikovati (barem za mene). Najbolji najbolji oblici mogu postići neku veličinu tokom godina i mogu dostići

30 ”/ 75 cm u prečniku i nekoliko stotina listova pre konačnog zavrtnja. Trenutno su prepoznate dvije podvrste, nominirana podvrsta iz istočnog Nuevo Leóna i krajnje istočne Coahuile, i slične ssp. swobodae (manji u zrelosti, navodno sa nižim brojem listova) iz južne Coahuile i istočnog Duranga. Obje se podvrste javljaju u širokom uzvišenju od podnožja oko 1.900 ’/ 585 m do

5.500 ’/ 1.700 m. Vjerujem da su par različitih vrsta u hortikulturi valjane kada su stabilizirane i uzgajaju se istinski iz sjemena, posebno f. compacta (vjerojatno, ovo je šta ssp. swobodae predstavlja). Ovaj oblik je uglavnom sferične navike, sa vidno većim brojem listova od standardnog oblika i sa jakom tendencijom ka offset-u u mladosti. To je reklo da su neke biljke označene kao „f. compacta“U kultivaciji„ promijene svoja mjesta “i pretvore se u sasvim normalne zamjenike kada se posade.

Dva izvanredna, potpuno zrela primjera Agave victoriae-reginae f. compacta u kultivaciji. Lijevo, pustinjski botanički vrt, Phoenix, Arizona. Desno, privatni vrt, San Carlos, Kalifornija.

Agave victoriae-reginae obično se mogu razlikovati od površinski sličnih A. nickelsiae njihovim površinama listova i kombinacijama vrhova i terminalnih kičmi. Prva vrsta ima sjajne lisne površine s bijelim rubovima listova i vrhove s kratkim, finim sivim ili crnim ravnim ili blago zakrivljenim završnim bodljama koje izbijaju iz bijele osnove A. nickelsiae ima prašnjavo-matirane površine listova, crne vrhove lišća (ponekad s uskim bijelim trakom duž donjeg ruba) s dugim i stasitim crnim, zakrivljenim ili završnim bodljama u obliku slova S, često uz bok od dvije ili više ili manje uočljive sekundarne bodlje. Iz bilo kog razloga, nekoliko žuto šarenih sorti A. victoriae-reginae prikazuju vrlo zastrašujuće crne terminalne bodlje.

Lijevo, detalji vrha lista Agave victoriae-reginae i tačno, A. nickelsiae uzgajaju se kao potpuno izložene lončanice u planinskom Gvatemali. Zbirka autora.

Ovo je neusporediva vrsta za upotrebu u žarišnim i masovnim sočnim zasadima i snažno bih pozvao vrtlarce sa uslovima i prostorom da uspostave barem jedan. Ganna Walska Lotusland u Montecitu u Kaliforniji i neke južnoevropske kolekcije bile su pioniri upotrebe ove vrste u ovom formatu (vidi ploču 48 u irskom „Agave, Yuccas i srodne biljke“ 2000.), ali mnogi drugi vrtovi - javni i privatni - imaju slijedio odijelo. Njegova ekstremna tolerancija na hladnoću i vrućinu čini ga izvrsnom temom za umjerene i suptropske krajolike širom svijeta, posebno ako se može osigurati neka zaštita iznad glave kako bi se smanjilo oštećenje lišća od prekomjerne kiše ili tuče. Britanci, Francuzi i Španci porasli su vrlo lijepog izgleda Agave victoriae-reginae na otvorenom u područjima blage klime u njihovim zemljama. Vrlo podnošljiv na sušu, ali uvijek izgleda najbolje kada se tokom sušnih mjeseci u pustinjskim okruženjima opskrbljuje dodatnom vodom. Nisam vidio da se koristi u vertikalnim zasadima per se, ali prije nekoliko godina eksperimentirao sam s njihovim zasadanjem u pukotine stijena u lokalnom krajoliku s velikim vizualnim efektom.

Lijevo, novoosnovana masovna sadnja (2016) od Agave victoriae-reginae u privatnom vrtu na poluotoku, područje zaljeva San Francisco, Kalifornija. Desno, detalj sadnje kamena prikazan u donjem središtu prethodne slike snimljene 2019. Autorski dizajn.

Iznad, prethodno prikazana masovna sadnja sa> 35 dobro utvrđenih Agave victoriae-reginae snimljeno početkom 2019. Autorski dizajn.

Iznad, utvrđena masovna sadnja u pustinjskom botaničkom vrtu u Phoenixu, Arizona, prikazana 2015. godine. Međuposađeni kaktusi na fotografiji s desne strane od tada su uklonjeni.

Žarišna sadnja Agave victoriae-reginae f. compacta i Echinocactus grusonii, Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, Kalifornija.

Nije posebno dobar izbor za nizijske tropske vrtove, ali se u tim uvjetima može uzgajati u posudama napunjenim supstratima na bazi minerala i zaštićenim od viška kiše. Biljke koje sam gledao u Miamiju u prošlosti, kao i nedavne fotografije koje su mi poslane, generalno su izgledale znatno inferiornije od onih uzgajanih u zapadnim državama i nosile su neugledne suknje mrtvih, raspadajućih bazalnih listova.

Lijevo, par ogromnih (28 "+ / 70 cm + promjer) Agave victoriae-reginae ssp. victoriae-reginae izložen u pustinjskom botaničkom vrtu, Phoenix, Arizona. Tačno, neobično A. victoriae-reginae klon koji pokazuje ostatke rubnih zuba, rijetka pojava koja se ponekad pojavi kao mali postotak u nekim velikim serijama sjemenskih biljaka. Postrojenje u vrtu Ruth Bancroft, Walnut Creek, Kalifornija.

Cvjetne veličine Agave victoriae-reginae f. compacta u velikom loncu od terakote. Uzgoj na otvorenom u planinskoj Gvatemali. Zbirka autora.

Dvije biljke (obje f. compacta) da sam cvjetao u Gvatemali to sam učinio slijedeći

25 godina od sjetve sjemena, ali većim oblicima je potrebno čak 35-40 godina da rastu u umjerenoj klimi.

Golo ukorijenjene biljke treba ponovo uspostaviti u saksijama oko šest mjeseci prije sadnje u pejzaž. Nedavno sam radio s nekoliko primjeraka od 22 ”/ 55 cm, poslatih čistih korena iz rasadnika koji se nalazio izvan mojeg područja i nisam pretrpio pad ili gubitak lišća. Iz raširenih izvještaja poznato je da je ova vrsta vrlo podnošljiva na hladnoću od 5-10 stepeni F / -15 do -12 C ako se održava suvom.

Iako se još uvijek vjeruje da hibridizira sa Agava lechuguilla u prirodi roditelj u jednom dobro poznatom križanju (= A. x pumila*) je sada ispravljeno A. nickelsiae napisao González-Elizondo, et. al. Isti taj hibrid može biti i izvor biljaka koje su se ranije zvale A. victoriae-reginae f. viridis u kultivaciji. Ruth Bancroft Garden i drugi uzgajaju umjetni križ koji očito uključuje A. victoriae-reginae i A. lechuguilla (fide Uzgajivači San Marcosa). Tri žive biljke koje sam vidio sve dijele ukočene, uske listove, slabe tragove lišća, glatke rubove listova i dugačke, krupne završne bodlje. Postoje pouzdani izvještaji o hibridima koji uključuju A. victoriae-reginae i druge vrste agave koje se javljaju u simpatiji koja raste u prirodi u kanjonu Huasteca i drugdje u njihovom arealu (W. Young, pers. comm.).

Dva Agave victoriae-reginae hibridi u pejzažu, oba navodno uključuju A. lechuguilla. Lijevo, u vrtu Ruth Bancroft, Walnut Creek, Kalifornija. Desno, u rasadniku Desert Foothills, Cave Creek, Arizona. Imam mladi primjer drugog klona ovog hibrida koji dijeli većinu ključnih karakteristika ove dvije biljke, ali s još zastrašujućim terminalnim bodljama.

Agave victoriae-reginae ima mnogo raznolikih sportova, uključujući nekoliko koji su se probili na šire tržište putem PTC-a. Uključuju „Kazo Bana’* I‘ Limunada ’* (aureo-marginat),‘Kizan’* (Krem aureo-marginat),‘ Bijeli nosorog ’* (albo-marginat) i‘ Kralj sunca ’(mediopicta-aurea). Neki od albovariziranih klonova mogu imati vrlo visoke cijene u usporedbi s oblicima normalne boje. Par neimenovanih oblika mediopicta alba koje sam vidio možda je najfiniji od svih šarenih vinskih reg. Klonovi sa krem, žutosmeđim i žutim šarenim lišćem obično se razlikuju u boji i stupnju kontrasta, ovisno o dobi, jačini svjetlosti, prehrani i sezoni. Albo-šareni oblici vrlo su stabilni u boji tijekom svog života, ali su posebno skloni etiolaciji ili „istezanju“ ako se ne uzgajaju s dovoljno svjetlosti.

Lijevo, mlado Agave victoriae-reginae ‘Limunada’, desno subadult A. victoriae-reginae 'Bijeli nosorog'. Zbirka autora

Agave victoriae-reginae f. mediopicta aurea, Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, Kalifornija.

Varijacija u dva mlada primjera Agave victoriae-reginae 'Kizan' iz dva različita, ali vrlo renomirana američka izvorišta, uzgajana u identičnim, potpuno izloženim uvjetima na otvorenom i saksijama iste veličine. Na osnovu ovih biljaka, kao i ostalih prikazanih na mreži, čini se da se nekoliko klonova krem-marginata ove vrste svrstava u jedinstveni komercijalni klonski naziv „Kizan“. Da li je ovo proizvod mutacije u PTC-u ili iskrene greške u imenovanju ili ne, nije jasno. Zbirka autora.

Desno, pogledajte dolje na rozetu A. victoriae-reginae 'Bijeli nosorog'. Zbirka autora.

Visoko bijeli klonovi nešarenih biljaka mogu se prodati po maloj cijeni. Imena sorti se ponekad koriste za ove sumnjivo različite biljke, kao što su Agave victoriae-reginaeHimesanoyuki’/‘ Snježna princeza ’. Pregled nekoliko stanova sadnice A. victoriae-reginae od ručnog oprašivanja obično će dati barem nekoliko jako označenih jedinki. Niskokvalitetne biljke iz PTC-a ponekad mutiraju, gube bilo kakav privid apikalne dominacije i vremenom se strpaju u zaborav.

Najbolje od oba svjetska akcentna zasada Agave victoriae-reginae, A. nickelsiae i Arctostaphylos uva-ursi u vrtu na poluotoku, područje zaljeva San Francisco. Autorski dizajn.

Agave nickelsiae*. Agava Ane Nickels, Agava kralja Ferdinanda, pintilla. Uskrsnuo iz sinonimije sa A. victoriae -reginae u 2011. González-Elizondo, et. al., ovu vrlo prepoznatljivu vrstu u hortikulturu je uvela krajem 19. stoljeća Ana Buck Nickels, vlasnica rasadnika Arcadia u Laredu u Teksasu. Prvobitno objavljeno kao A. nickelsii napisao Roland-Gosselin, ispravan završetak ženskog roda u botaničkom latinskom (= -ae, -iae ili -iana) je naknadno dodan. Poznatiji pod sinonimom A. ferdinandi-regis Berger. Južni endemi Coahuilana koji se javlja uglavnom između 4.900-5.500 ’/ 1.500 i 1.700 m. Ovo je prilično velika i upečatljiva agava koja s vremenom može doseći najmanje 36 "/ 92 cm u promjeru i preko 28" / 70 cm u visinu, iako se gajene biljke uzgajane izvan srednje i južne Arizone i južne Kalifornije rijetko mogu vidjeti s dimenzijama poput neke od ovdje prikazanih.

Prekrasna, potpuno zrela Agave nickelsiae u pustinjskom botaničkom vrtu, Phoenix, Arizona.

Djelomičan prikaz masovne sadnje Agave nickelsiae u privatnom vrtu kasno popodne na poluotoku, područje zaljeva San Francisco, Kalifornija. Autorski dizajn.

Hibridizira se promiskuitetno u prirodi sa najmanje još dvije simpatičke agave, uključujući Agave asperrrima (ranije A. scabra) za proizvodnju biljaka koje su već neko vrijeme popularne u uzgoju. Poznat kao A. x pumila, A. x nigra, A. x saltilloensis, A. x nikelima, A. ‘Morski pas’ ili A. ‘Cipele od morske kože’, ove biljke su trenutno prepoznatljive čak i kada se dalje zamahuju. Budući da su umjetni hibridi proizvod nekoliko oslobađanja sjemenskog i offset materijala, a od tada se razmnožavaju otvorenim oprašivanjem do F2, formalni klonski nazivi 'Sharkskin' itd. Koji koriste pojedinačne citate itd. Ne vrijede ni za uzgajane niti divlje biljke. Stabilni, blijedo marginirani oblici komercijalno se uzgajaju iz PTC-a (npr. A. 'Velika bijela ajkula', A. 'Senf ajkula' i A. ‘Shark Bite’), ali su i dalje rijetki i imaju visoku cijenu.

Lijevo, velika kolonija Agave x Morski pas u Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, Kalifornija. Tačno, maloljetnička faza Agave x pumila. Zbirka autora.

Jednostavne kulture i obično malo bržeg rasta od većine oblika Agave victoriae-reginae. Vrlo tolerantno na hladnoću (na 5-10 stepeni F / -15 do -12 C), ali ne voli dugotrajno vlaženje bilo gdje, posebno zimi.

Lijevo, Agave nickelsiae u privatnom vrtu na poluotoku u području zaljeva San Francisco. Desno, trio prečnika 75 cm A. nickelsiae primjerci na prodaju u komercijalnom rasadniku u Scottsdaleu u državi Arizona.

Nikad nisam cvjetao niti sam vidio uzgajanu biljku koja je procvjetala, pa pretpostavljam da im treba barem nekoliko decenija da zaskoče.

Zanimljivo je da desetine šarenih sportova Agave victoriae-reginae ušli su u uzgoj tokom proteklih 20 godina, samo nekoliko primjetno raznobojnih A. nickelsiae su ga plasirali na tržište, od kojih su najmanje dva oblika mediopicta-aurea.

Gomolji i pruge na abaksijalnoj površini lišća kod maloljetnice Agave pintilla. Zbirka autora.

Agave pintilla*. Pintilla. Relativno nova izreza iz A. victoriae-reginae dr. Socorro González-Elizondo i koautori. Ovo je endem Jugoistočnog Duranga koji je jedina vrsta u ovom kompleksu koja se javlja na Tihom okeanu, na istočnoj padini Sierra Madre Occidental između

4.700-5.200 ’/ 1.450 i 1.600 m. Ovo je marginalno najmanja vrsta iz A. victoriae-reginae složen, s brojevima listova koji se mogu uporediti sa A. nickelsiae i dugo-trokutasto lišće. Zrele rozete prijavljene su u promjeru 24 ”/ 60 cm, iako su obično nešto manje. Neki su pojedinci među najupečatljivijim agavama, sa vrlo širokim, emajliranim bijelim prugama na sjajnim listovima. Ova vrsta je možda unesena u ukrasnu hortikulturu pre nekoliko godina kao A. victoriae-reginae ili A. nickelsiae puštanje divlje prikupljenog sjemena, jer u SAD-u postoje veće vrste koje se podudaraju s opisom i slikama divljih biljaka A. pintilla. Nedavno predstavljanje A. pintilla biljke uzgojene iz sjemena prikupljenog na staništu pokazuju da imaju prilično dugačke, sjajne listove, primjetno tamnije boje, raštrkane pruge i znatno su više tuberkulirane na donjoj strani usko-trokutastih listova kao mlade biljke A. nickelsiae Rešio sam. Svi imaju izdužene, krupne terminalne bodlje poput A. nickelsiae ali temelji zrelih vrhova lišća su bijeli kao kod A. victoriae-reginae. Nakon petogodišnjeg rasta i promjera 17-10 cm od 7-10 ”, moji tek počinju pokazivati ​​prve dokaze vrlo živopisne bijele pruge po kojoj je ova vrsta najpoznatija. Ograničena ispitivanja i njegovo porijeklo sugeriraju da je vjerojatno podnošljiv na vremenske prilike kao i njegovi bliski rođaci. Zbog svoje veličine i rijetkosti u uzgoju, zajedno sa sporim rastom, A. pintilla je vjerovatno najprikladnija kao lončanica za većinu sakupljača dok ne dobije neku veličinu. Vjerovatno hladno izdržljiv na 10-15 F / -12 do -9,5 C.

Par uzgojenih sjemenki starih pet godina Agave pintilla. Biljka s desne strane ima prečnik 10 ”/ 25 cm. Čini se da ova vrsta otprilike u ovoj fazi počinje razvijati kontrastne pruge. Imajte na umu da ova vrsta ima polusjajne listove, a ne mat kao u usko srodnih listova A. nickelsiae. Zbirka autora.

Poznato po hibridizaciji u prirodi sa Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina proizvesti vrlo robusnu, sabranu biljku. Umjetni hibridi koji očito uključuju ovu vrstu (kada se još uvijek smatraju visokobojnim oblikom A. nickelsiae) i A. asperrima su u ograničenom uzgoju u Kaliforniji. Nekoliko hibridnih biljaka za koje sam identifikovao da imaju ovog roditelja sa kojima sam sve rukovao imaju vrlo veliku sličnost A. pintilla od ranog razvoja.

Terenski rad meksičkih i američkih istraživača tokom protekle decenije bio je neprocjenjiv u razjašnjavanju statusa svih populacija u Agave victoriae-reginae kompleks. Bilo je korisno i djelomično riješiti zbrku koju su ostavili Howard Scott Gentry - koji je ovim biljkama dao iznenađujuće kratak osvrt u svojoj monografiji 1982. godine - i drugi stariji taksonomi i autori. Posebno je zanimljivo primijetiti da su različiti svojti koje je predložio González-Elizondo, et. al. prikazani su mapirani kao razdvojene, alopatrične populacije koje se, u nekoliko slučajeva, događaju prilično udaljene jedna od druge. Njihova detaljna analiza prirodnih hibridnih rojeva koji se međusobno križaju / vraćaju različitim vrstama u prirodi također je vrlo zanimljiva i pomaže u rasvjetljavanju vjerovatnog porijekla nekih problematičnih biljaka u uzgoju (npr. A. victoriae-reginae f. viridis = A. nickelsiae x lechuguilla/A. x pumila). Potrebna su dalja istraživanja učestalosti i rasprostranjenosti divlje hibridizacije unutar ove vrste.

Veliki, u saksiji Agave utisak čeka transplantaciju u privatnom vrtu na poluotoku, područje zaljeva San Francisco.

Agave utisak*. Masparillo. Da nije bilo njegove zastrašujuće zrele veličine, oštrih rubnih zuba i relativno brzog rasta, A. utisak bila bi izuzetno popularna lončanica kod sočnih entuzijasta. Ova vrlo lijepa vrsta sa niskih uzvisina zapadnog podnožja Sierra Madre Occidental na Sinaloi i Nayaritu dobiva VELIKU uzgoj, lako prelazeći 5 ’/ 1,60 m u promjeru. Iako nije osjetljiv na hladnoću kao što sugerira njegovo tropsko porijeklo, zimi će pouzdano puhati kada se održava hladan i mokar - ili samo vrlo, vrlo hladan. Gentry (1982) mentioned that his experience with small wild-collected plants taken to collections in southern Florida and southern California was that the species presented “difficulties” in cultivation. Fortunately, this has not been the recent case with seed-grown and PTC origin plants in California. Large plants that I have grown under old-growth oak canopy in the landscape in northern California have survived overnight lows of 26 degrees F/-3.3 C with frost blankets and shown surprisingly little damage. Wet winters will produce some rotten basal leaves and leaf tips, despite excellent drainage and preventive drenches of Banrot (= Etridiazole and Thiophanate-methyl), but damage is usually more or less grown through by the late spring. Unprotected plants exposed to temperatures below freezing for prolonged periods will die quickly. Plants available from both seed-grown introductions and PTC, including the “Green Giant” clone sold by Rancho Soledad Nurseries and others. A fantastic plant for succulent gardens with some overhead shelter or fortunate enough to experience dry, fairly mild winters. Non-offsetting so far. Seedling plants show little evidence of leaf imprinting until over 10”/25 cm in diameter. Some seed-grown plants from southern Sinaloan accessions have pale pink striping in youth.

The stunning backlit bud imprints and marginal spines on the leaves of a large mature Agave impressa, looking a bit like crocodile teeth. Private garden on the Peninsula, San Francisco Bay Area.

Half-grown examples of the three accepted subspecies of Agave parviflora. Clockwise from top center, A. p. ssp. densiflora, A. p. ssp. flexiflora i A. p. parviflora. Note that it is often difficult or impossible to separate the latter two forms by leaf morphology alone. Author’s collection.

Agave parviflora*. Small-flowered agave, Santa Cruz striped agave, sobari. Three currently accepted subspecies, ssp. parviflora*, ssp. flexiflora* and ssp. densiflora*. The nominate subspecies is one of the smallest agaves (6-10”/15-25 cm diameter), is fairly localized and threatened with extinction in parts of its native range in the mountains of extreme south-central Arizona and northwestern Sonora. The other two (?) subspecies are also restricted to small populations in the grasslands and oak woodlands in northwestern Sonora (ssp. flexiflora) and southeastern Sonora (ssp. densiflora). Gentry (1972) segregated plants with deflexed corollas as ssp. flexiflora. Some plants exhibiting this trait also have longer, more linear leaves than the nominate subspecies, and cultivated plants under this name usually match this description together with having lightly-marked upper leaf surfaces. Since this peculiar flower morphology is reported to occur in and adjacent to populations recognized as ssp. parviflora, it may be that this is just a local variant. Single plants in cultivation are genuine dwarf agaves and can easily be grown to flowering size in 6”/15 cm pots, although ssp. densiflora is almost twice the size of the nominate form and will require more legroom when mature. Many A. parviflora show a leaf morphology that unusual in agaves in that the widest areas of the leaf are located at basal AND apical ends. My somewhat limited experience with these plants confirms others’ views that they can be relatively fast-growing in cultivation and that some clones offset reliably while others don’t. They do appear to resent bare-root transplanting, so care should be taken when re-establishing material purchased online from out of state nurseries, particularly if they are dehydrated on arrival. Cold tolerant to 10-15 degrees F/-12 to -9.5 C.

Look-down on rosette center of a young Agave parviflora ssp. parviflora. Author’s collection.

A young Agave parviflora f. mediopicta alba in a 5”/13 cm pot. This is one of the more costly variegated agaves in cultivation today. Author’s collection.

Agave parviflora can be extremely variable as to the amount of white and number of marginal threads that the leaves show on individual plants. Some very good clones are very heavily marked, look almost white and are very bristly. It also has a few variegated forms in PTC, including the very attractive clone ‘Pinpoint’ – a mediopicta alba form commercially released by Plant Delights Nursery. These tend to offset more sparingly than normally colored clones.

A high white form of Agave parviflora at the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona.

Agave polianthiflora*. Red-flowered agave. Mescalito. Essentially indistinguishable from A. parviflora when not in flower. Usually about the same size at maturity as a large example of the nominate subspecies of A. parviflora (8-12”/20-30 cm). May occur at higher elevations (to 6,500’/2,000 m) than A. parviflora but does occurs sympatrically with ssp. densiflora near Yecora, Sonora state at 4,500-5,200’/1,400-1,600 m. Reportedly still common in nature. Overall, a very handsome plant in flower with orange, rose or red peduncles and flowers. Its care is the same as for A. parviflora i A. toumeyana. Very cold tolerant to 5-10 degrees F/-15 to -12 C when kept dry.

Agave polianthiflora basking in winter morning sunshine, Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California.

Agave toumeyana*. Toumey’s agave. Two subspecies, ssp. toumeyana* and ssp. bella*. A very beautiful, compact and frondose species in nature that rarely looks anywhere near as good in cultivation. A central Arizona endemic usually found growing as a lithophyte or in rocky scrub at higher elevations but may also occur lower at

2000-2,500’/615-770 m. Very cold tolerant if kept dry, but often briefly buried by snow in winter at higher elevations in habitat. Not especially tolerant of prolonged cold, wet winter conditions. Subspecies are differentiated by leaf size as adults and by the presence (ssp. bella) or absence (ssp. toumeyana) of denticles or tiny spines visible along the basal edges of their leaves. Some of best ecotypes of ssp. bella are very small (

6”/15 diameter) and have very wide, bright white striping on their leaves. These forms are among the smallest and showiest of the tabletop agaves. Unless mass planted in a suitable environment, probably wasted in most landscapes. Like its close relatives A. parviflora i A. polianthiflora, “hard” pot cultivation (full morning and early afternoon sunshine, mineral substrates, spare watering, light fertilization) is required to develop and maintain a natural appearance. Like others in captivity, mine get insufficient light and too much water to closely resemble the small, tight rosettes of wild plants. Cold tolerant to at least 10-15 degrees F/-12 to -9.5 C.

Colony of potted but fully-exposed Agave toumeyana ssp. bella soldiering on through a wet coastal Californian winter. Author’s collection.

The natural hybrid. At a few upland localities in central Arizona, Agave toumeyana ssp. bella hybridizes with the sympatric A. chrysantha to produce A. x arizonica*. This taxon was discovered in the 1960s, described as a full species and placed in Section Urceolatae (alongside A. utahensis*) by Gentry and Weber in 1970. As such, it was considered to be critically threatened with extinction and vulnerable to commercial collecting pressure. It was subsequently listed as both an Endangered Species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in 1984 and on CITES Appendix I in 1987. Ironically, prior to being added to to CITES, the US Forestry Service had petitioned that it be de-listed from the ESA in 1985, based on its (then) suspected F1 hybrid origin. It was removed from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants in 2006 and from CITES in 2007. It is still considered to be a threatened natural hybrid in Arizona and receives limited protection from wild collection at state level. This is a small (14-16”/35-40 cm diameter x 12-14”/30-35 cm tall), cold tolerant agave (to 15-20 F/-9.5 to -6.7 C) that grows well as both a pot plant and in the landscape. It tends to offset prolifically when young, so judicious pup removal will produce a more attractive-looking specimen. When it bolts, stand back since this hybrid is famous for its outsized

12’/3.70 m tall inflorescences. This plant was undoubtedly more in demand by specialist collectors when it was still considered to be a critically endangered species. While not particularly common in cultivation outside of succulent collections in Arizona and southern California, it has been further hybridized in open-pollinated events to produce small, attractive F2 pot plants such as A. ‘Dianita’.

Left, a young group of Agave x arizonica. Author’s collection. Right, a group of the F2 hybrid that has A. x arizonica as the seed parent, A. x ‘Dianita’ at the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona. Reported (open?) pollen parents for ‘Dianita’ are either A. seemaniana ssp. pygmaea ili A. parviflora.

Agave schottii. Shin digger. Amole. Two subspecies (for now), ssp. schottii i ssp. treleasii. Gentry (1982) states, “The plants have little if any value as ornamentals”. OK, this is the obnoxious small maguey that no one wants to grow, but it still fits in here as an untidy, homely sibling. Part of Section Parviflorae, its closest relative are the three species mentioned just previously. Endemic to south central and southern Arizona, the Animas region in extreme southwestern New Mexico, northern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua. Prefers open grasslands and oak woodland, mostly at elevations below 3,250’/1,000 m. Individual plants are usually (much) less than 18”/45cm wide but colonial and clumps rapidly to 3’/95 cm across. Subspecies (?) treleasii from southern Arizona is larger and with wider leaves than the nominate form. Some Arizona-based agave growers who have observed them in the field support the hypothesis proposed by Arizona Game and Fish (2005) that this is probably another natural hybrid (see A. x ajoensis below), but with A. chrysantha as the other parent. Images and written descriptions show that it lacks conspicuous leaf imprints and filaments on the leaf margins. This taxon is rare in cultivation.

Agave schottii ssp. treleasii colony at the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona.

The species is exceptionally cold hardy to 0-5 degrees F/ -17.8 to -15 C. The nominate subspecies is locally common to abundant in native ecosystems across its range. Very drought tolerant but looks best with supplemental water in the summer. Not a great candidate for pot culture but makes an interesting addition to the xeriscape. Outside of plantings in regional botanical gardens, possibly the least-cultivated agave on this list.

A. x ajoensis = A. schottii ssp. schottii x A. deserti ssp. simplex. A rare and rather attractive natural hybrid restricted to elevations between 3,000-3,600’/900-1,100 m in the Ajo Mountains of Organ Pipe National Monument on the Arizona-Sonoran boundary. When not clumped, it can occasionally resemble a somewhat emaciated A. ocahui. Probably in a few private collections in Arizona and California, but otherwise only known to be in cultivation at the the Desert Botanical Garden in Phoenix.

There are also reports that this species may hybridize with at least one other sympatric Agave species in southern Arizona.

Agave colimana*. A localized, lightly-striped thread-leaf species growing to about 4’/1.20 m in diameter in nature, restricted to coastal cliffs and adjacent low-elevation foothills in southwestern Jalisco, Colima and extreme western Michoacán States. Still rather uncommon in cultivation and may be confused with some light-green ecotypes of the closely-related A. schidigera. My experience with this species is based on observations of plants in public gardens and a single plant purchased in 2017 from a southern Arizona nursery and put into the landscape in northern California. Not even as cold-tolerant as A. impressa, which occurs a few hundred miles (

500 km) north of the core populations of this plant. Tested to 30 degrees F/-1 C with minor leaf damage. Not a good pot plant because of its adult size. Besides ticking a box on a collector’s list, there is not a great deal to recommend this species when compared to A. impressa ili A. schidigera. The names A. ortgiesiana i A. maritima are synonyms for this species sometimes used in the EU and México.

A large Agave colimana, Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona.

Agave felgeri. Mescalito. A small lowland desert species, originally collected on the edge of the Gulf of California near Guaymas, Sonora. Now restricted to the coastal plain of northwestern Sonora and isolated populations that persist near the Gulf. Small with rigid leaves. To about 12”/35 cm across, densely clustering, with pale leaf stripes and threaded leaf margins. Surprisingly cold tolerant, tested to 15-20 degrees F/-12 to -6.7 C in southern Arizona. Probably needs overhead protection from winter rains. Looks much nicer in managed small clumps than as massed colonies.

A large clump of Agave felgeri, Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona.

Agave filifera. Thread agave. Thread-leaf agave. This is a high elevation, central Mexican endemic that is easily confused with the wide-ranging, and sometimes considered conspecific, A. schidigera. This is the easternmost and highest elevation occurring member of the plants discussed here. Described from cultivated plants in Europe, it is now known to occur in Aguascalientes, Querétaro, Hidalgo and México states. A clumping species to about 24”/60 cm in diameter. Fast-growing for a species in this group. Better suited to landscapes than pots because of its colonial habit. Water and heat-stressed plants may show attractive red or purple tints to their leaves in high light environments and some specific ecotypes are now being offered by US nurseries.

Agave filifera colony as large and rather formidable bedding plant, Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California.

There is a dwarf, sparely-offsetting cultivar in PTC, Agave filifera f. compacta that has small rosettes (to

12”/30cm) with a relatively low number of wide leaves. ‘Cream Edge’ is a very handsome albomarginated clone in PTC.

Vertial planting of Agave filifera at the University of California Berkeley Botanical Garden.

Cold tolerant to at least 10-15 degrees F/-12 to -9.5 C.

An artificial hybrid, A. x leopoldii (= A. filifera x A. schidigera) is relatively common in cultivation. Smaller than both parents and with curlicued threads, it is usually photographed when potted as a single rosette but is annoyingly prone to recurve and clump. I found several clones amenable to highland tropical conditions as a fully exposed pot plant in Guatemala City. Because of its very untidy habit I see little to recommend it due to its rampant adult form. There is a variegated sport. Cold tolerant to 15-20 F/--9.5 C to -6.7 C

It is likely some plants labeled Agave filifera in cultivation under this name represent the following taxon.

Agave x leopoldii clump, Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California.

Agave schidigera ‘Shiraito no Ohi’. Author’s collection.

Agave schidigera*. Thread-leaf agave. Occasionally considered a larger (to 36”/95 cm across), non-colonial subspecies or form of A. filifera, this wide-ranging taxon is a superb plant for pot culture and landscapes and will usually maintain a handsome, solitary form until blooming. Unlike A. filifera, this is a very widely-distributed and variable plant that occurs as a lithophyte throughout much of western México from northern Sinaloa to western Guerrero states at elevations from 1,600’-8,400’/

500 to 2,600 m. Some exceptional, heavily-marked clones such as ‘Durango Delight’, ‘White Stripe’ and the cream-tinted albomarginates like ‘Shiraito no Ohi’* (‘Queen of White Thread’ or f. compacta marginata) are among the most beautiful cultivated agaves. The winter-blooming inflorescences are also showy (see photo at the beginning).

Agave schidigera, Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona.

Agave schidigera ‘Black Widow’ is a darker-colored, fairly compact clone from PTC. The rare, very showy ‘Sun Starr’, a f. medio-picta alba is an outstanding selection, as is the aureovariegated ‘Royal Flush’.

There are a few nondescript hybrids involving this species out there in “Agaveland” in addition to one very promising-looking hybrid made at Ruth Bancroft Garden, A. schidigera x ocahui, that definitely warrants wider distribution.

Cold tolerant to at least 15 F/-9.5 C.

A very beautiful clone of the primary hybrid, Agave schidigera x A. ocahui, Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California.

Look-down on the rosettte of an Agave microceps showing pale mid-stripe on its leaves. Author’s collection.

Agave microceps*. Dwarf Thread-leaf agave. Separated from A. filifera in 2007, this is a small striped and threaded species that appears restricted to steep volcanic slopes at a single locality in northern Sinaloa. This is another easily confused species that bears quite a strong resemblance to the other miniature ornamental agaves discussed here. Some individuals show a distinct pale green mid-stripe on their leaves when grown bright. Spine tips and new leaf margins tend to be light reddish brown in color (note images here), which can be a helpful diagnostic in combination with other features. Still rare in cultivation but wild-collected seed does make its way from habitat on an infrequent basis and it is grown at several U.S. public gardens. This species is exceptionally suited for pot cultivation due to its relatively compact size at maturity (12”/30 cm) and sparse offsetting. Probably shows limited cold tolerance to around 30 F/-1 C.

A nice-looking Agave microceps, Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California.

Agave multifilifera*. Hairy agave. Chahuiqui. Another plant that was formerly treated as an A. filifera subspecies in the past, but quite distinct overall. A mediopicta-type or lightly-striped plant that is extremely frondose with hundreds of narrow leaves having very filiferous margins as the name indicates. Offsets rarely and with great age. Large, to >5’/1.50 m wide x 3’/1 m tall, high elevation and presumably very cold tolerant from the northern Sierra Madre Occidental on the Sonoran-Chihuahuan border to northwestern Durango and northeastern Sinaloa from 4,500’ to over 6500’/1400->2,000 m. Can form a short trunk in nature over time. Although very slow-growing, not the best pot plant unless grown very hard exceptional in the landscape. Requires full exposure and careful watering to maintain proper plant form. While unremarkable in youth, outstanding when mature. Cold tolerant to 15-20 F/-9.5 to -6.7 C.

5’/1.50 m diameter) of Agave multifilifera in the landscape at Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California." />

5’/1.50 m diameter) of Agave multifilifera in the landscape at Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California.

A nice Agave multifilifera at the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona.

Agave multifilifera ‘Starshine’ is a beautiful albomarginate clone in PTC with creamy-white leaf stripes.

Agaves hybridize readily in nature and cultivation, both in intra- and intersectional crosses. Some natural hybrids have stabilized over time, and several “species” known from the southwestern US and México are now believed or known to be the product of hybridization. Examples discussed herein once believed to be full species that were later shown to be natural hybrids include A. x arizonica i A. x pumila. In artificial settings such as large gardens, public and private, where agaves can consistently grow to maturity, open-pollinated hybridization events occur routinely. Unfortunately, few are controlled, so the resulting offspring’s reported parentage is often just guesswork by collectors, nurserymen and their employees.

The two more common species of the Agave victoriae-reginae complex produce attractive and desirable hybrid offspring, some of which have been propagated in large numbers via PTC and sold as mass-market plants in the nursery trade. As far as I am aware, very few of them are the product of controlled crosses. The familiar A. nickelsiae x asperrima hybrids were discussed above. A couple well-known and widely-distributed hybrids have mysterious parentage that has not been fully sorted out even today. These plants are occasionally the subject of acrimonious online debate by agave aficionados and nurserymen.

Look-down of rosette center on an Agave ‘Blue Emperor’. Author’s collection.

The better-known Agave victoriae-reginae man-made hybrids are discussed below. All are widely misidentified, even (mostly?) by some well-known succulent nurseries. The differences can sometimes appear subtle, particularly when they are grown “soft”.

Agave ‘Blue Emperor’*. Probably the least controversial of the primary hybrids in cultivation in terms of its pedigree. Claimed to be A. macroacantha x victoriae-reginae or the reverse cross and certainly looks it throughout its life. ‘Blue Emperor’ has a distinct glaucous cast to their blue-gray leaves when well-grown, small marginal teeth for much of their length, one to several visible tubercles on the lower leaf surfaces near the tip, and dark brown to glossy black apical spines. Rancho Soledad is reported to have introduced this plant into cultivation.

Terminal spines on all these plants hurt a lot if you get stabbed by one, so take care when siting them.

Agave ‘Blue Emperor’, young adult in winter color. In my opinion this hybrid, when well-grown, is one of most visually pleasing of all the small blue magueys. Author’s collection.

Agave ‘Little Shark’. Reported to involve the same parents and looks suspiciously similar in life, down to the presence of tiny tubercles on the lower leaf tips. Perhaps a sibling that was also propagated on, or just the same clone exhibiting the effects of a bit of mutation in PTC.

Near mature Agave cf. ’Little Shark’ at the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona. Note the short rows of small black tubercles on the lower leaf tips tips of both this example and the previous plant.

Agave ‘Royal Spine’*. True A. ‘Royal Spine’ is olive to dark green overall, lacks marginal teeth (although it does have tiny denticles along the leaf edges when young) and has broad, reddish to dark brown or black corneous leaf margins and stout, red or brown terminal spines. Tubercles absent from lower leaf tips. Reports indicate that this is also an A. victoriae-reginae x macroacantha cross but made with a green leaf form of the pollen parent. Different sources claim different origins for these plants. Starr (2012), Moore (2016) and others cite an employee at the Tropic World Nursery in Escondido, California as being the original breeder of ‘Royal Spine’ in the mid-1990s while some claim that it is a Rancho Soledad hybrid. It is not unlikely that several different crosses of the same species were made by different people in California over the years. Introduced to the commercial nursery trade by Allen Repashy from PTC. Comment made by growers in online succulent fora indicate that it is susceptible to rot and collapse if over-watered as a pot plant and limited experience overwintering it unprotected in my collection in California confirm it may struggle under cold, wet conditions.

A beautifully-cultivated near mature Agave ‘Royal Spine’ at Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California. This hybrid can display even brighter-colored terminal spines in the summer.

Leaf details on a young Agave ‘Burnt Burgundy’ in winter color. Author’s collection.

Agave ‘Burnt Burgundy’*. Another older hybrid, putatively A. victoriae-reginae x palmeri and originating from seed collected off a plant grown at Gene Joseph’s Living Stones Nursery-Plants for the Southwest in Tucson, Arizona (fide G. Starr). Rosettes have markedly upcurved leaves in and small marginal teeth in youth, but mostly smooth leaf margins as an adult. Easily confused with A. ‘Blue Ember’ but, in my experience has proportionately narrower leaves, has fewer and smaller marginal teeth, and a more open rosette form.

Distinct glaucous banding is hard-wired into the genetic backgrounds of all five of these clones and is readily evident if soil and water conditions are even close to optimal. Despite some reports to the contrary, watering frequency does not influence the degree of banding on hybrid agave leaves. Bright exposure during spring, summer and early fall usually enhances both cross-banding and overall plant color.

Agave ‘Blue Ember’*. An artificial hybrid almost certainly involving A. victoriae-reginae, but recent claims have been made online by a breeder in southern California that A. potatorum x ocahui may be an alternative possibility. Distinct marginal teeth present along the length of the leaves. The terminal spines and leaf margin colors are variable (red through violet to black) depending on source and growing conditions. More than one clone may be in PTC and on the market under this name, either a sibling or from a remake of the cross. True A. ‘Blue Ember’ is another widely mislabeled cultivar. It is a very handsome plant and a worthy addition to any succulent collection. Be aware that there seem to be many photoshopped images of this clone published online, so not all plants have exquisite-looking powder blue leaves and hyaline, ruby red teeth and terminal spines.

Agave ‘Blue Ember’ leaf detail, summer color. Note continuous marginal teeth to base of terminal spines. Author’s collection.

Agave ‘Blue Ember’, young adult in winter color. Note the bud imprinting and faint cross-bands evident on the leaves, even under cool and wet conditions. Author’s collection.

Agave victoriae-reginae x ovatifolia (= A. x victorifolia) i A. ocahui x victoriae-reginae. These are fairly new, apparently controlled crosses made by nurserymen on both coasts with very limited releases. The second cross appears to have also been made in the EU. Rare in the trade. I have never seen a live example of either hybrid, but images on the internet show they are both interesting-looking. Images of a few open-pollinated hybrids that surfaced in an eastern Australia succulent nursery, reportedly of A. victoriae-reginae x parrasana, also appear online.

All of these hybrids are cold tolerant to at least 20 degrees F/-6.7 C, and most can handle moderately wet winters as well with minimal or no damage.

Besides deliberate or accidental obfuscation of parentage by some hybridizers that confound and stymie other agave breeders, it seems quite clear to me that random open-pollination events and sloppy record-keeping have also led to the confusion as to species involved in these crosses. In my opinion, all of the hybrids listed above are worth owning if you have the space. Note that individual conditions will often change the leaf color and (to a lesser degree) form of these plants. Several will also spread their wings towards >3’/95 cm spans as they mature and may also clump. Fortunately, most are reasonably slow-growing as pot plants, particularly if kept root-bound.

Other than the natural hybrids and Agave schidigera crosses mentioned previously, almost none of the other species discussed here have been used in hybridization for the nursery trade.

Look-down on center of mature Agave polianthiflora in the landscape at the University of Calfornia Berkeley Botanical Garden.

Pot cultivation. Most of the species listed above are eminently suited – for quite a few years at least – to pot cultivation on terraces, patio tabletops and windowsills. Light feeding and “hard’ culture will slow growth rates for species that are wider than 24”/60 cm in diameter as adults and keep them at manageable sizes. I have grown many species described here as young plants for over five years in a large, very bright bay window in California with excellent results.

Nurseries and many hobbyist growers prefer plastic pots over clays due to their lower cost, weight and strength, and many perfectly-grown plants have spent their entire lives in plastic pots. Having cultivated almost all my agaves in climates that experience heavy rain - late spring and summer in Guatemala and winter and early spring in northern California – I personally favor terracotta pots since the growing media can dry out faster.

Like most ornamental plants, agaves benefit from the use of high-quality water when grown in pots. Highly alkaline tap water can generate issues with nutrient availability and should be acidified or alternated with rain, bottled or reverse osmosis (RO) source water whenever feasible. Unsightly mineral deposits from the constant use of hard water are another reason to avoid over-reliance on poor quality municipal or well water sources. That said, acceptable-looking plants can be grown with municipal water in most areas. Given their origins, Agave colimana i A. felgeri are probably very salt-tolerant.

Growing media. I have always favored very high content of pumice in my succulent growing mixes to facilitate drainage and better atmospheric gas exchange with the roots. In Guatemala my source of organic matter was heat-sterilized, well-composted oak leaf litter. In California I generally use ProMix or similar. Ratios for medium-grade pumice to organic matter for plants grown indoors are 2:1 and outdoors 3:1 or even higher. I also amend these mixes with encapsulated gypsum, dolomite and balanced Nutricote 180-day formula. Growers with hard irrigation water can dispense with additional calcium sulphate and dolomite. Pure, clean hort grade pumice coupled with bottom heat is very useful for re-establishing valuable agaves that have lost their roots to rot.

Use of overhead canopy and basalt boulders as heat sinks to successfully grow tropical agave species (Agave impressa i A. guiengola shown) in a garden that regularly experiences sub-30 degree F winter lows. Privare garden on the Peninsula, San Francisco Bay Area, California. Author’s design.

In the landscape. Site plants carefully, taking into consideration their mature sizes, proclivity to clump, proximity to foot traffic and access for future maintenance. Prepare beds for planting by amending heavy soils with pumice or other light aggregates, add slow release granulated fertilizers to the hole, blend with prepared soil and tip plant out of pot into it. Tamp soil firmly around the base of the plant. Agaves should be planted with their “necks” slightly higher than the surrounding soil level (i.e. mounded) to allow for natural subsidence and to keep the base of the stem dry. Do not plant them in depressions where their bases will stay permanently wet. This is not quite as important in arid climates than it is in areas that receive a lot of rainfall but is a good general rule for growers everywhere.

The use of boulders as thermal mass/heat sinks that radiate stored warmth when the sun goes down is very useful when trying to improve the chances of marginal plants in temperate and subtropical landscapes. Besides the aesthetics, I like to site cold temperature sensitive species against basalt and black lava outcrops to give them the benefit of irradiated warmth overnight on the chilly predawns of late fall and winter.

Periodic drenches of fungicides designed for control of fungus in turf planting, etc. (e.g. Banrot) are of great value in wet climates. Not an endorsement. Use common sense when using any pesticide and always follow label instructions and local laws.

Hail. I have suffered a few very severe hail strikes on my outdoors succulent collections over the past several decades. In agaves, evidence of damaging hail storms is usually left in the form of many small, light-colored “fractured” spots (technically referred to by horticulturalists as “dings”) on the upper leaves that are oriented on a fully horizontal plane. Species with rather brittle or glossy leaves, such as A. impressa, A. pelona, A. guiengola, A. chazaroi, etc. usually show the damage much more conspicuously than the rugose-leaf species like A. parryi, A. guadalajarana, A. potatorum, etc. I like to follow up these stressful events with sprays of broad-spectrum contact fungicides with surfactants, but in dry climates these are probably unnecessary. If you’re unlucky enough to get a visit by large-bore hail, hope that it occurs while your plants are still fairly young time (and new leaf production) heals all wounds.

Non-specific rots and leaf spotting, including anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) and lookalikes. In the real world, hobbyists and most nurserymen don’t continually fire samples off to their local agricultural extension office’s lab for positive identification of every suspected pathogen that surfaces in their inventory, so “shotgunning” broad spectrum fungicides or antibiotics seems the order of the day. Cleary’s 3336 or Daconil + mancozeb fungicidal drenches at labeled rates or sprays to runoff in combination with together a spreader-sticker will usually halt the spread of many leaf spots, etc. A couple of passes will usually dry things up unless the climate is really being uncooperative. I also favor removal of leaves showing a lot of active rot with a clean cutting tool. Sterilize between cuts with a burner, TSP or alcohol. Syringe cut areas with hydrogen peroxide, let dry, then dust with fine powdered horticultural grade or activated charcoal. See above recommendations about responsible and legal ag-chem use.

Agave snout weevils (Scyphophorus acupunctatus) and running bugs (Caulotops barberi) . These often very problematic critters are largely a problem where native agaves occur in the desert U.S. southwest, but they can be invasive and other true bugs are occasionally pests elsewhere. I’ve never seen them on my plants in Guatemala nor in northern California, but I understand they are a problem in the landscape further south. Various treatment protocols are published online and in print, but as a general recommendation for landscape growers, watch out for any evidence of snout weevil infestations in your area and respond accordingly if you have large specimen-sized or flowering agaves in your collection.

Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae, many genera). These sucking insects are an ubiquitous pest of agaves grown indoors. There are several non-toxic options for treatments of minor infestations in a small collection, including soapy water and dilute alcohol dabs. Any potent, broad-spectrum insecticide that is labelled for sucking insects will usually control mealies. Systemics as drenches work particularly well in controlling both mealies and scale insects during the growing season. Avoid oil-based products for spraying agaves.


Highlights

Agave impressa (Gentry): A gorgeous, distinctive Agave that changes drastically in appearance as it grows. It starts as a light, silver rosette with leaves outlined in orange and red. Direct sun and drought bring out phenomenal magenta hues. Over time, the leaves develop large spines on their edges that leave behind bright white imprints on neighboring leaves. It grows slowly but can reach over 3.0' in diameter. This plant is fully rooted in a 3.5" pot.

Agave need plenty of full, outdoor sunlight and great drainage to thrive. They do well in gritty, mineral soils and pots with drainage holes. Over time you'll see new offsets or "pups" sprout up around the base of the mother plant.

Agave grow slowly in the spring and summer and can tolerate high heat and extended drought. This variety is not frost hardy and needs protection from heavy rains and standing water to prevent rot.


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